PFAS, or “Forever Chemicals

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Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a large group of man-made chemicals that have been used in industry and consumer products worldwide since the 1940s. PFAS are found in a wide range of consumer products, such as non-stick cookware, water-repellent clothing, stain-resistant fabrics and carpets, cosmetics, firefighting foams, and products that resist grease, water, and oil. Due to their widespread use and persistence in the environment, PFAS contamination has become a concern for drinking water systems globally. Here’s a list of the top 10 PFAS commonly found in drinking water and why they are of concern:

Top 10 PFAS Commonly found in drinking water


  • 1. PFOA (PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID)CONCERNS

    Associated with potential adverse human health effects, including developmental issues, cancer, liver damage, immune effects, and thyroid disruption.


  • 2. PFOS (PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONIC ACID)CONCERNS

    Like PFOA, PFOS exposure is linked to similar health risks, including changes in cholesterol levels, developmental effects, and potential carcinogenic effects.


  • 3. PFNA (PERFLUORONONANOIC ACID)CONCERNS

    Studies suggest potential links to kidney and liver toxicity, developmental issues, and reproductive harm.


  • 4. PFHXS (PERFLUOROHEXANESULFONIC ACID)CONCERNS

    Less is known about PFHxS compared to PFOA and PFOS, but it is associated with immune system effects and changes in liver enzymes and thyroid hormones.


  • 5. PFBS (PERFLUOROBUTANESULFONIC ACID)CONCERNS

    Considered less bioaccumulative than longer-chain PFAS, but concerns include thyroid hormone disruption and potential developmental toxicity.


  • 6. PFHXA (PERFLUOROHEXANOIC ACID)CONCERNS

    Research is emerging, but there is concern about its potential for liver toxicity and developmental effects.


  • 7. PFPEA (PERFLUOROPENTANOIC ACID)CONCERNS

    Early studies indicate potential reproductive and developmental toxicity, with further research needed.


  • 8. PFBA (PERFLUOROBUTANOIC ACID)CONCERNS

    One of the shorter-chain PFAS with potential effects on the liver, kidney, and thyroid, though less is known compared to longer-chain compounds.


  • 9. PFHPA (PERFLUOROHEPTANOIC ACID)CONCERNS

    Limited studies suggest potential impacts on developmental and reproductive health, with ongoing research to understand its effects fully.


  • 10. PFDA (PERFLUORODECANOIC ACID)CONCERNS

    Exposure may lead to liver damage, developmental effects, and alterations in lipid metabolism and immune response.

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1. PFOA (Perfluorooctanoic Acid)Concerns

Associated with potential adverse human health effects, including developmental issues, cancer, liver damage, immune effects, and thyroid disruption.

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2. PFOS (Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid)Concerns

Like PFOA, PFOS exposure is linked to similar health risks, including changes in cholesterol levels, developmental effects, and potential carcinogenic effects.

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3. PFNA (Perfluorononanoic Acid)Concerns

Studies suggest potential links to kidney and liver toxicity, developmental issues, and reproductive harm.

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4. PFHxS (Perfluorohexanesulfonic Acid)Concerns

Less is known about PFHxS compared to PFOA and PFOS, but it is associated with immune system effects and changes in liver enzymes and thyroid hormones.

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5. PFBS (Perfluorobutanesulfonic Acid)Concerns

Considered less bioaccumulative than longer-chain PFAS, but concerns include thyroid hormone disruption and potential developmental toxicity.

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10. PFDA (Perfluorodecanoic Acid)Concerns

Exposure may lead to liver damage, developmental effects, and alterations in lipid metabolism and immune response.
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6. PFHxA (Perfluorohexanoic Acid)Concerns

Research is emerging, but there is concern about its potential for liver toxicity and developmental effects.
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7. PFPeA (Perfluoropentanoic Acid)Concerns

Early studies indicate potential reproductive and developmental toxicity, with further research needed.
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8. PFBA (Perfluorobutanoic Acid)Concerns

One of the shorter-chain PFAS with potential effects on the liver, kidney, and thyroid, though less is known compared to longer-chain compounds.
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9. PFHpA (Perfluoroheptanoic Acid)Concerns

Limited studies suggest potential impacts on developmental and reproductive health, with ongoing research to understand its effects fully.

Why Are They of Concern?

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Persistence

PERSISTENCE

PFAS do not break down in the environment, leading to widespread presence in water, soil, and living organisms.
Bioaccumulation

BIOACCUMULATION

PFAS can accumulate in the body over time, leading to potential health risks with prolonged exposure.
Health Effects

HEALTH EFFECTS

Studies link PFAS exposure to various health issues, including cancer, hormone disruption, immune system effects, and developmental problems.
Water Contamination

WATER CONTAMINATION

PFAS can contaminate drinking water sources through industrial releases, use of firefighting foams, and leaching from consumer products, making them a concern for public health.

REDUCE FOREVER CHEMICALS IN YOUR FAMILY’S WATER TODAY.

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